International Journal of Case Reports and Images - IJCRI - Case Reports, Case Series, Case in Images, Clinical Images

   
Case Report
 
A rare case of anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia in a six-year-old boy
Bismah Gul1, U. Narayan Reddy2, Swathi Chacham3, S. Ali khurram4, Naila Mazher1, Taha Mustafa5, E. Apoorva5
1MD Paediatrics, Junior Resident, Department of Paediatrics, Deccan College of Medical Sciences, Princess Esra Hospital, Hyderabad 500 002, Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, India.
2MD paediatrics, DCH, DNB paediatrics, Head of The Department And Professor, Department of Paediatrics, Deccan College of Medical Sciences, Princess Esra Hospital, Hyderabad 500 002, Andhra Pradesh,Telangana, India.
3MD Paediatrics, DM Neonatology (from Post graduate institute of medical education and research, Chandigarh), Assistant Professor, Department of Paediatrics, Deccan College of Medical Sciences, Princess Esra Hospital, Hyderabad 500 002,Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, India.
4MD Pediatrics, Associate Professor, Department of Paediatrics, Deccan College of Medical Sciences, Princess Esra Hospital, Hyderabad 500 002, Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, India.
5DCH, Junior Resident, Department of Paediatrics, Deccan College of Medical Sciences, Princess Esra Hospital, Hyderabad 500 002, Andhra Pradesh,Telangana, India.

doi:10.5348/ijcri-201621-CR-10608

Address correspondence to:
Dr. Naila Mazher
MD Paediatrics, Junior resident, Deccan College of Medical Sciences, Princess Esra Hospital
Hyderabad 500 002, Andhra Pradesh, Telangana
India

Access full text article on other devices

  Access PDF of article on other devices

[HTML Abstract]   [PDF Full Text] [Print This Article]
[Similar article in Pumed] [Similar article in Google Scholar]


How to cite this article
Gul B, Reddy UN, Chacham S, Khurram SL, Mazher N, Mustafa T, Apoorva E. A rare case of anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia in a six-year-old boy. Int J Case Rep Images 2016;7(2):127–131.


Abstract
Introduction: Ectodermal dysplasia is a rare, non-progressive, genetic disorder resulting from abnormal development of two or more tissues at a time which are derived from the embryonic ectoderm. It classically manifests with skin, eccrine gland, nail and hair changes, with an incidence of 1 in 1, 00,000 births. More than 170 different syndromes have been identified. X- linked recessive anhidrotic dysplasia (XLHED) being the most common type, which is expressed in males.
Case Report: A six-year-old boy, was bought to the pediatric outpatient department with the complaints of fever on and off since month months. The parents gave history of recurrent episode of hyperpyrexia, with heat intolerance, absent sweating and delayed dentition in the past. On examination the child had peculiar facies, characterized by malar hypoplasia, flattening of nasal bridge, everted lips, wrinkled periorbital skin, pegged shaped tooth, low set ears, scanty, hypopigmented hair on the head; with absent eyebrows and eye lashes. Even after thorough evaluation and investigation, no focus of infection was found, ectodermal dysplasia was then considered and a skin biopsy done, which showed absence of skin appendageal structures.
Conclusion: We report a rare case of anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia in a 6-year-old boy, thus emphasizing the need for considering EDA as a differential diagnosis for neonates and infants with history of fever of unknown origin specially when associated with delayed dentition and hypotrichosis. An early diagnosis would have prevented unnecessary antibiotic misuse

Keywords: Children, Guillain-Barré syndrome, Herpes zoster, Immunocompetent


Introduction

Anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia is a heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by constellation of findings involving defects of skin, hair, appendageal structures, eccrine and sebaceous glands. There are two major types of this condition depending on the number and functionality of the sweat glands: [1] X-linked recessive anhidrotic or hypohidrotic, (Christ-Siemens Touraine syndrome) in which sweat glands are either absent or reduced in number, and [2] hidrotic (HED), where sweat glands are normal and the condition is inherited as autosomal dominant (Clouston syndrome) [3] [4]. Genetic studies regarding the etiology of EDA revealed that mutations in the ectodysplasin-A and ectodysplasin-A receptor genes are responsible for X-linked and autosomal hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia [5]. Various classifications have been proposed based on clinical features, mode of inheritance, gene mutations and pathophysiology, but pure EDA manifests with defects in ectodermal structures alone.


Case Report

A six-year-old boy (Indian), was bought to the pediatric outpatient department during summer season with complaints of fever on and off since three months, his birth history did not reveal any significant events, he was born of a third degree consanguineous marriage, the child had history of recurrent episode of hyperpyrexia, with heat intolerance, absent sweating and delayed dentition in the past, there was no history of similar complaints among the family members. On clinical examination, the child was febrile, temperature 101oF, other vital parameters were normal, but the child had peculiar facies, characterized by recessed Columella, thick everted lips, with absent eye lashes and eyebrows, dry, wrinkled periorbital skin, (Figure 1) with dry scaly skin all over the body. There were scanty, hypo pigmented hair on the head, malar hypoplasia, flattening of nasal bridge, and low set ears (Figure 2). Oral examination of the child revealed hypodontia with presence of only one pegged shaped tooth in the upper jaw (Figure 3). Systemic examination was normal. His physical, mental and sexual developments were as per his age. Otorhinolaryngological and ophthalmological examination were also normal.

Routine investigations for sepsis screen were sent which did not reveal any positive findings. After thorough evaluation and investigation for a focus of infection, EDA was considered and a skin biopsy was done for histopathological examination which showed absence of skin appendageal structures like hair follicles, eccrine glands, and sebaceous glands (Figure 4). The child was given supportive and symptomatic treatment, and was encouraged to consume adequate liquids to maintain hydration. He was advised to wear cool clothing for thermoregulation along with topical emollients. The child was referred to a pediatric orthodontist and prosthodontics for dental implants to improve his speech, appearance and mastication. Genetic counseling regarding the mode of inheritance and nature of this syndrome was offered to his parents.


Cursor on image to zoom/Click text to open image
Figure 1: Characteristic facies (malar hypoplasia, flattening of nasal bridge, dry, wrinkled periorbital skin, and prominent low set ears, with absent eyebrows (black arrow) and eyelashes (white arrow)).



Cursor on image to zoom/Click text to open image
Figure 2: Hypotrichosis-sparse, thin, hypopigmented hair (black arrow) with malar hypoplasia (red arrow) and low set ears (white arrow)



Cursor on image to zoom/Click text to open image
Figure 3: Hypodontia with single, pegged shaped tooth in the upper jaw (black arrow).



Cursor on image to zoom/Click text to open image
Figure 4: Skin histopathology showing hyperkeratosis of the epidermis with loss of rete ridges, adnexal structures in the dermis.



Discussion

Ectodermal dysplasia is a rare, non-progressive, genetic disorder resulting from abnormal morphogenesis of two or more tissues at a time which are derived from the embryonic ectoderm. This disorder is characterized by constellation of findings involving defects of skin, hair, appendageal structures, eccrine and sebaceous glands. It has an incidence of 1 in 1,00,000 births [1]. More than 170 different syndromes have been identified [2], of which X linked recessive anhidrotic dysplasia is the most common type with gene mapping to Xq12-q13 mutation, is expressed in males. The number of female carrier, with no or little signs of the disease exceed more than the affected males. It is mostly reported in whites, with rare incidences in people of other races. Hidrotic ectodermal dysplasia has a predilection for people of French-Canadian origin. Genetic studies regarding the etiology of EDA reveals that the mutations in the ectodysplasin-A and ectodysplasin-A receptor genes are responsible for X-linked and autosomal hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia [5]. The key transcription factors and intracellular signaling pathways that have been implicated in the etiology of EDA, include the tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-like/TNV receptor signaling pathway, which involves ectodysplasin (EDA); the EDR receptor (EDAR), the EDAR-associated death domain (EDARADD); the WNT signaling pathway; the NF-kB signally pathway, which involves the NF-kB essential modulator (NEMO); and the transcription factor p63 [6]. In 2009, 64 genes and 3 chromosomal loci were associated with 62 ectodermal dysplasia [7].

Thurman first reported a patient with ectodermal dysplasia in 1848 [8]. The term ectodermal dysplasia was coined by Weech in 1929 [9]. The first classification system of the ectodermal dysplasia was given by Freire-Maia and Pinheiro in 1982 [10], with additional updates in 1994 and 2001.

Ectodermal dysplasia was later reclassified into the following four functional groups based on the underlying pathophysiologic defect: (1) cell-to-cell communication and signaling, (2) adhesion, (3) development, and (4) other [11]. Similarly, in 2001, Priolo and Laganà reclassified the ectodermal dysplasias into 2 main functional groups: (1) defects in developmental regulation/epithelial-mesenchymal interaction and (2) defects in cytoskeleton maintenance and cell stability [6]. Several ectodermal dysplasia syndromes may manifest in association with mid-facial defects, mainly cleft lip, cleft palate, or both. The three most commonly recognized forms include (1) ectodermal dysplasia, ectrodactyly, and clefting (EEC) syndrome [12]; (2) Hay-Wells syndrome or ankyloblepharon, ectodermal dysplasia, and cleft lip/palate (AEC) syndrome; and (3) Rapp-Hodgkin syndrome, all of which are caused by mutations in the TP63 gene.

Clinical diagnosis is usually made in infancy or childhood when they present with skin, dental, hair, and nail changes, if undiagnosed early, the child may present with complications like seizures (due to hyperthermia), xerophthalmia, conjunctivitis or Xerostomia (due to decreased tear and salivary gland secretions ) and dental caries. Frequent pharyngitis, otitis, and rhinitis; nasal obstruction; hearing loss; and hoarseness has also been reported. On examination, facial dysmorphism (sunken cheeks; saddle nose; thick, everted lips; wrinkled, hyperpigmented periorbital skin; and large, low-set ears) may be seen. Skin is dry and hypopigmented with eczematous dermatitis. Sweating may be absent or reduced. Hair is sparse, hypopigmented and brittle. On microscopic observation hair shaft shows medullation with a "bar code" appearance. Nails may be dystrophic. Dental features may include absent, reduced, rudimentary, or pegged teeth; accompanied by enamel defects and frequent dental caries. Hypogammaglobulinemia with impaired lymphocyte proliferation and cell-mediated immunity have also been associated.

Diagnosis is based on demonstration of absent sweat pore by yellow starch-iodine powder, when applied on the skin of normal individuals will change to a deep purple color on sweating making the sweat pores visible. But there is no color change in people with EDA. Definitive diagnosis is made by skin biopsy done on the hypothenar eminence, which shows reduced or absent appendageal structures with thin and flattened epidermis. Prenatal diagnosis of hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia can be made with fetal skin biopsy or by chorionic villus samples at the 10th week of gestation. Genetic testing can determine several forms of ectodermal dysplasia.

Treatment consists of encouraging frequent consumption of cool liquids to maintain adequate hydration and thermoregulation. Patients are advised to wear cool clothing. Topical emollients can be prescribed for xerosis or eczematous dermatitis. Artificial tears to prevent damage to the cornea may benefit patients with reduced lacrimation along with saline sprays to protect nasal mucosa. For patients with dental defects, advise early dental evaluation and intervention and encourage routine dental hygiene. Certain recommendations for the diagnosis, evaluation, and treatment of patients with ectodermal dysplasia, were proposed by an international consensus meeting of experts [13] [14]. Patients with ectodermal dysplasia with immunodeficiency are prone for frequent infections requiring treatment with therapeutic and/or prophylactic antibiotics. Speech and occupational therapy may benefit patients with cleft lip and/or palate. Genetic counseling should be provided to the parents.


Conclusion

We report a rare case of anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia in a six-year-old boy with recurrent episodes of hyperthermia since birth, thus emphasizing the need for thorough evaluation of fever of unknown origin in the new born period and considering ectodysplasin (EDA) as a differential diagnosis especially in children presenting with defects in ectodermal structures.



Acknowledgements

We are thankful to Dr. Nayeem Shah, Professor department of dermatology and Dr. Zakia Abid Sultana, Professor and head of the department of pathology for helping with the investigations.


References
  1. Nunn JH, Carter NE, Gillgrass TJ, et al. The interdisciplinary management of hypodontia: background and role of paediatric dentistry. Br Dent J 2003 Mar 8;194(5):245–51.   [CrossRef]   [Pubmed]    Back to citation no. 1
  2. Akhyani M, Kiavash K. Ectodermal dysplasia with alopecia, onychodysplasia, hypohidrosis, keratoderma, abnormal teeth and deafness. Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol 2007 Nov-Dec;73(6):409–11.   [CrossRef]   [Pubmed]    Back to citation no. 2
  3. Vieira KA, Teixeira MS, Guirado CG, Gavião MB. Prosthodontic treatment of hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia with complete anodontia: case report. Quintessence Int 2007 Jan;38(1):75–80.   [Pubmed]    Back to citation no. 3
  4. Yavuz I, Ülkü SZ, Ünlü G, et al. Ectodermal dysplasia: clinical diagnosis. Int Dent Med Disorders 2008;1:1–10.    Back to citation no. 4
  5. Tarjan I, Gabris K, Rozsa N. Early prosthetic treatment of patients with ectodermal dysplasia: a clinical report. J Prosthet Dent 2005 May;93(5):419–24.   [CrossRef]   [Pubmed]    Back to citation no. 5
  6. Priolo M. Ectodermal dysplasias: an overview and update of clinical and molecular-functional mechanisms. Am J Med Genet A 2009 Sep;149A(9):2003–13.   [CrossRef]   [Pubmed]    Back to citation no. 6
  7. Visinoni AF, Lisboa-Costa T, Pagnan NA, Chautard-Freire-Maia EA. Ectodermal dysplasias: clinical and molecular review. Am J Med Genet A 2009 Sep;149A(9):1980–2002.   [CrossRef]   [Pubmed]    Back to citation no. 7
  8. Thurnam J. Two cases in which the skin, hair and teeth were very imperfectly developed. Med Chir Trans 1848;31:71–82.   [CrossRef]   [Pubmed]    Back to citation no. 8
  9. Weech AA. Hereditary ectodermal dysplasia (congenital ectodermal defect). Am J Dis Child 1929;37:766–90.    Back to citation no. 9
  10. Pinheiro M, Freire-Maia N. The ectodermal dysplasias. Arch Dermatol 1982 Apr;118(4):215–6.   [CrossRef]   [Pubmed]    Back to citation no. 10
  11. Lamartine J. Towards a new classification of ectodermal dysplasias. Clin Exp Dermatol 2003 Jul;28(4):351–5.   [CrossRef]   [Pubmed]    Back to citation no. 11
  12. Okamura E, Suda N, Baba Y, et al. Dental and maxillofacial characteristics of six Japanese individuals with ectrodactyly-ectodermal dysplasia-clefting syndrome. Cleft Palate Craniofac J 2013 Mar;50(2):192–200.   [CrossRef]   [Pubmed]    Back to citation no. 12
  13. Klineberg I, Cameron A, Hobkirk J, et al. Rehabilitation of children with ectodermal dysplasia. Part 2: an international consensus meeting. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 2013 Jul-Aug;28(4):1101–9.   [CrossRef]   [Pubmed]    Back to citation no. 13
  14. Klineberg I, Cameron A, Whittle T, et al. Rehabilitation of children with ectodermal dysplasia. Part 1: an international Delphi study. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 2013 Jul-Aug;28(4):1090–100.   [CrossRef]   [Pubmed]    Back to citation no. 14

[HTML Abstract]   [PDF Full Text]

Author Contributions
Bismah Gul – Substantial contributions to conception and design, Acquisition of data, Analysis and interpretation of data, Drafting the article, Revising it critically for important intellectual content, Final approval of the version to be published
U. Narayan Reddy – Analysis and interpretation of data, Revising it critically for important intellectual content, Final approval of the version to be published
Swathi Chacham – Analysis and interpretation of data, Revising it critically for important intellectual content, Final approval of the version to be published
S. Ali khurram – Analysis and interpretation of data, Revising it critically for important intellectual content, Final approval of the version to be published
Naila Mazher – Analysis and interpretation of data, Revising it critically for important intellectual content, Final approval of the version to be published
Taha Mustafa – Analysis and interpretation of data, Revising it critically for important intellectual content, Final approval of the version to be published
E. Apoorva – Analysis and interpretation of data, Revising it critically for important intellectual content, Final approval of the version to be published
Guarantor of submission
The corresponding author is the guarantor of submission.
Source of support
None
Conflict of interest
Authors declare no conflict of interest.
Copyright
© 2016 Bismah Gul et al. This article is distributed under the terms of Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium provided the original author(s) and original publisher are properly credited. Please see the copyright policy on the journal website for more information.



  Home line About IJCRI line Aim and Scope line Sections line Open Access line Archives
Apply as Editor line Apply as Reviewer line Submit Reviews - Editors line Submit Reviews - Reviewers
Instructions for Authors line Templates to Use line Copyright Form line Author Checklist
Online Submission line Email Submission line Submit Revision line Submit All Forms line Submit Page Proofs
Terms of Service line Privacy policy line Disclaimer line FAQ line Contact: Journal line Contact: Edorium Journals line Site Map
 
  Copyright © 2017. Edorium. All rights reserved.